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Development characteristics of Canadian green mine model


In recent years, keywords such as "green", "sustainable", "responsible", and "transparency" have gradually become the basic concepts and principles of global mining development. Many international organizations, government departments, non-governmental organizations and associations, etc. all involved. Different countries choose one or several "keywords" to promote the sustainable and healthy development of the mining industry according to their own mining development characteristics and government preferences, based on the overall value of resources, environment, economy, and society, as well as the positioning, division of labor, and interest coordination of different subjects. Taking Canada as an example, at the government level, in 2009 and 2016, the Canadian government (Ministry of Natural Resources) issued the "Green Mining Initiative" (GMI, Green Mining Initiative) twice to accelerate the research, development and deployment of green mining practices; At the industry level, the Canadian Mining Association (MAC) formulated Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) tools and evaluation indicators in 2003, requiring mining companies participating in TSM to realize their commitment to responsible mining. Canadian Association of Exploration and Development 2009 In 2018, e3 (Excellence in Environmental Exploration) Plus was formulated to provide mining companies with a responsible exploration framework.

The "Green Mining" initiative in 2009 included four themes: First, reduce pollutant emissions, explore and select mineral deposits with favorable conditions for mining, and leave waste rocks in place. At the same time, research on clean treatment, value-added mineral by-products, reduction of waste gas emissions, development of cyanide and bioleaching alternative technologies, etc., will substantially improve energy efficiency in the integration of mining, processing, and smelting. The second is innovative waste management aimed at meeting increasingly stringent regulatory requirements and addressing public concerns. Improved waste (or tailings) management and treatment technologies will help reduce the cost of mine operation and closure, while also reducing environmental prosperity impacts and liabilities. The third is ecosystem risk management, including research on metal hazards and better methods for risk assessment, as well as metal toxicity assessment, metal product management, environmental impact monitoring, improving landfill and pit closure methods, and reducing public and private sector costs. Fourth, mine closure and reclamation. Coordinate between mining, provinces and territories to assess the impacts of climate change, develop appropriate strategies, technologies and better waste management policies and reclamation practices.

In 2016, the Canadian Ministry of Natural Resources released the "Green Mining Development Plan", which made requirements for green mining in terms of tailings management, aboriginal relations, energy utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, hazardous substance management, and employee training: First, Tailings management, including fulfilling tailings management policies and commitments, establishing a tailings management system, reporting annual tailings management inspection results, tailings pond operation and maintenance, etc.; the second is the relationship with aborigines, requiring evaluation of the "Indigenous Peoples and Community Extension Agreement" The third is energy utilization and greenhouse gas emission management, including the establishment of energy utilization management system, energy utilization reporting system and energy intensity performance targets; the fourth is greenhouse gas emission management system, including the establishment of greenhouse gas emission management report system and greenhouse gas emission intensity performance targets; fifth is biodiversity conservation, in accordance with the "Biodiversity Conservation Agreement Framework" approved in 2009, the Canadian Mining Association announced the assessment results of the framework in the previous year; sixth is the externalization of stakeholders Community recognition requires the establishment of a participation and dialogue mechanism and a response system for stakeholders; the seventh is the reporting system, which needs to evaluate the safety and health of mines, and the evaluation results of the previous year will be announced in the next year; eighth is the risk management plan, Including the announcement of crisis management preparations, inspection results, and staff training; nine is mine closure, and the mine closure work will be carried out in accordance with relevant laws and regulations and the "Mine Closure Agreement" approved in 2008.